Around crowned imperial double-headed eagle who holds a scepter and a globe cross; year above. Catherine II (Russian: II , Yekaterina II Velikaya), also known as Catherine the Great , born 2 May O. 21 April 1729 as Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg in Stettin, Pomerania, reigned as Empress of Russia from 9 July O.
28 June 1762 until her death 17 November O. Under her direct auspices the Russian Empire expanded, improved its administration, and continued to modernize along Western European lines. Catherine's rule re-vitalized Russia, which grew stronger than ever and became recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. Her successes in complex foreign policy and her sometimes brutal reprisals in the wake of rebellion (most notably Pugachev's Rebellion) complemented her hectic private life. Catherine took power after a conspiracy deposed her husband, Peter III (17281762), and her reign saw the high point in the influence of the Russian nobility.
Peter III, under pressure from the nobility, had already increased the authority of the great landed proprietors over their muzhiks and serfs. The distinctions between peasant rights on votchina and pomestie estates virtually disappeared in law as well as in practice during her reign. In 1775 Catherine decreed a Statute for the Administration of the Provinces of the Russian Empire.
The Statute sought to efficiently govern Russia by increasing population and dividing the country into provinces and districts. By the end of her reign, there were fifty provinces, nearly 500 districts, more than double the government officials, and they were spending six times as much as previously on local government. In 1785 Catherine conferred on the nobility the Charter to the Nobility, increasing further the power of the landed oligarchs. Nobles in each district elected a Marshal of the Nobility who spoke on their behalf to the monarch on issues of concern to them, mainly economic ones.
In the same year, Catherine issued the Charter of the Towns, which distributed all people into six groups as a way to limit the power of nobles and create a middle estate. Each of these charters had major flaws, and Catherine seemingly could not gain the reform she long desired for her country.After her death, this was made even more obvious through her son Paul. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method.
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